Infinitive

Infinitive adalah bentuk dasar dari verb atau kata kerja. Infinitive umumnya dikenal dengan kata kerja bentuk pertama atau V1 yang biasa muncul di kamus-kamus.

infinitiveKetika membicarakan Infinitive biasanya kita mengacu ke bentuk present infinitive.

Padahal masih ada empat jenis infinitive yakni the perfect infinitive, the perfect continuous infinitive, the continuous infinitive, & the passive infinitive.

Seperti apa?

Berikut beberapa contoh kalimatnya:

  • Before I turn 50, I want to have visited some countries in Europe. (Perfect Infinitive)
  • The old man must have been waiting for hours! (Perfect Continuous Infinitive)
  • You must be kidding! (Continuous Infinitive)
  • The car needs to be washed. (Passive Infinitive)

Sekarang, kita pelajari lebih dalam tentang Present Infinitive ya.

Present Infinitive memiliki dua bentuk:

to-infinitive

to+V1

Zero infinitive

V1

Untuk lebih memahaminya, yuk simak beberapa contoh berikut;

To-infinitive Zero-infinitive
to eat eat
to sleep sleep
to drink drink
to read read
to have have

Sedangkan untuk negative infinitive, cukup tambahkan kata 'not' di depan bentuk infinitive tersebut.

Contohnya:

  • My mother asks me not to sleep late.
  • I decided not to bring my dog.
  • Paula might not come to the party.
  • We'd rather not swim there.

Lalu, apa sih fungsinya to-infinitive ini?

To-infinitive berfungsi untuk mengungkapkan tujuan. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kurang lebih bisa diartikan  ‘untuk’. Namun selain itu infinitive juga memiliki beberapa fungsi lainnya.

Kita bahasa satu persatu ya...

I. MENGINDIKASIKAN TUJUAN ATAU MAKSUD DARI SEBUAH TINDAKAN

Pada fungsi ini to-infinive memiliki terjemahan: 'untuk', 'agar' atau 'supaya' Nah, lalu bagaimana contohnya dalam kalimat? Check this out ya..

  • People work to get some money. (Orang-orang bekerja untuk/agar mendapatkan uang)
  • Mr. Daud came to see his grandchildren. (Pak Daud datang untuk menemui cucu-cucunya)
  • I'm calling to ask about the room availability. (Saya menelepon untuk menanyakan tentang ketersediaan kamar)
  • Wanda has gone to pick up her best friend. (Wanda sudah pergi untuk menjemput sahabatnya)

II. SEBAGAI SUBYEK DARI KALIMAT

Fungsi ini sebenarnya lebih lumrah atau umum dipakai dalam bahasa tulis.

  • To give advice is easy.
  • To drive very fast in this area is not advisable.
  • To visit London is my dream.

III. UNTUK MENGINDIKASIKAN SESUATU DAPAT ATAU AKAN DIPAKAI SEBAGAI APA

  • I need a coin to show a magic.
  • The old man doesn't have anything to wear.
  • Jessica and Vicky bought some snacks to eat.

IV. PENGGUNAAN SETELAH ADJECTIVES (KATA SIFAT)

Untuk menggunakan to-infinitive setelah adjectives (kata sifat) kita memakai rumus:

Subject + to be + adjective + (for/of someone) + to-infinitive + (rest of sentence)

  • It is nice of you to help the poor.
  • It is important for you to be careful when you drive.
  • It is important for them to come on time.
  • I am happy to see you.
  • Raisa is excited to perform here.

V. UNTUK MENGOMENTARI ATAU MEMBERI PENILAIAN

Rumus yang dipakai: Subject + to be + noun phrase + to-infinitive

  • It was a stupid idea to come to that hotel.
  • It's a dangerous vehicle to drive.
  • This is the right thing to do.
  • Emirate is the best airplane to fly.

VI. PENGGUNAAN DENGAN ADVERBS (KATA KETERANGAN)

Bentuk to-infinitive juga seringkali dipakai berbarengan dengan adverbs 'too' (terlalu) dan 'enough' (cukup) untuk menunjukkan alasan kepuasan atau ketidakpuasan.

Bentuk 'too' ataupun 'enough' diletakkan sebelum atau sesudah adjective, adverb ataupun noun yang mereka modifikasi.

  • The box is too heavy to lift. (Kotak tersebut terlalu berat untuk diangkat)
  • I have too many things to clean in my room. (Saya mempunyai terlalu banyak barang untuk dibersihkan di kamar saya)
  • Isabella was too tired to continue her work. (Isabella terlalu lelah untuk melanjutkan pekerjaannya)
  • Joan and Maggy were too young to ride the roller coaster. (Joan dan Maggy terlalu muda untuk naik roller coaster itu)
  • You're not old enough to have a new baby. (Kamu belum cukup tua untuk memiliki bayi baru)
  • They have enough money to buy a new car. (Mereka memiliki cukup uang untuk membeli mobil baru)

VII. PENGGUNAAN DENGAN KATA TANYA

Beberapa kata kerja seperti ask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tell, & understand bisa diikuti kata tanya seperti where, how, what, who, & when + the to-infinitive.

  • The woman asked me how to go to the local hospital.
  • The teacher decided when to give the assignment to his students.
  • Do you understand what to do?
  • I forget who to call.
  • Professor Malik knows where to start the research.

Berikutnya: Penggunaan Zero Infinitive

Nah, setelah sebelumnya kita banyak belajar tentang fungsi dari to-infinitive, sekarang waktunya mengulas tentang pemakaian zero infinitive.

Siap?

I. ZERO INFINITIVE SETELAH AUXILIARIES

  • Marry can't talk to you right now.
  • You must come here before 9 P.M.
  • Mr and Mrs Sandy should check their blood pressure every week.
  • Would you like a drink?
  • I might stay there for a week.

II. ZERO INFINITIVE SETELAH VERBS OF PERCEPTION

  • I saw him run away during the accident.
  • You heard me knock the door last night, right?
  • Lisa felt her dog sniff her foot.

III. ZERO INFINITIVE SETELAH KATA KERJA 'MAKE' DAN 'LET'

  • You made me cry last night.
  • Please don't make me do that job. I hate it!
  • Let's go to the prom together.
  • The man let his son drive the car.

IV. ZERO INFINITIVE SETELAH EKSPRESI 'HAD BETTER'

  • I'd better leave now.
  • You'd better tell your wife about the robbery.
  • We had better reserve the hotel room now for the new year.
  • They had better send the email as soon as possible.
  • She had better buy the new cellphone.

V. ZERO INFINITIVE SETELAH KATA TANYA 'WHY'

  • Why choose this laptop?
  • Why wait until tomorrow if we can do it now?
  • Why not ask Marcia about it?

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